Reverse osmosis is a technical process that applies the reverse osmosis effect. On the higher concentration of ions (water input to be filtered ) a pressure is applied pushing the water molecules to the lower concentration of ion (water filtered output). Organic and inorganic materials dissolved in the water and microorganisms present have much larger molecular size than the ultrafine pores of the semipermeable membrane and can not diffuse into the filtered water.
Thus, the filtered water accumulates only water molecules, whereas impurities are being retained by the semipermeable membrane. For example, the semipermeabe membrane has pores with a size of ca. 0,0001 microns, viruses have sizes between 0,02 and 0,4 microns and bacteria have sizes between 1 and 4 microns.
To prevent blocking by impurities in the water membrane, input impurities retained by the membrane should be washed continuously ( membrane rinsing ). A reverse osmosis plant therefore produces not only pure water (permeate) but also waste water (concentrate) containing impurities from the water inlet which is discharged into the sewer. Equipment with reverse osmosis process is currently the best and most effective method for producing household drinking water, or water for medical and industrial application.
U.S. environmental protection agency EPA confirmed and recommended reverse osmosis and distillation as the only two safe and effective methods for water treatment. The process of reverse osmosis does not require chemical treatment of the water, it eliminates organic and inorganic impurities dissolved in the water up to 99% , it eliminates up to 99% of biological contaminants (bacteria , viruses, faecal streptococci) and ensures ideal filtered water, irrespective of the quality of the incoming water. Reverse osmosis water is pure water, demineralized and almost sterile. Due to the fact that most of the minerals necessary for the human body are assimilated through solids, water can be regarded as a material and a solvent medium in to eliminate toxins from the body.